Causes, Effects and Prevention of Nitrate Contamination in Ground Water Sources in River Basin and Hilly Terrain Area of Jahazpur Tehsil, Bhilwara District (Rajasthan, India): A Comparative Study

  • PARMESHWAR LAL MEENA University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302004

Abstract

Elevated nitrate toxicity in drinking water leads to infant methaemoglobinaemia (blue-baby syndrome), abortions, livestock poisoning etc. The present study was carried out to assess the causes, effects and prevention of nitrate toxicity river basin and hilly terrain area of study area, for this purpose hundred ground water samples were collected from dug wells, hand pumps and bore wells. The results revealed that water in dug wells and hand pumps/bore wells located in hilly terrain area contained more nitrate toxicity compare to dug wells and hand pumps/bore wells located in river basin area, and relatively more nitrate level in dug wells than the hand pumps/bore wells in both areas. About 50% water samples from hilly terrain and 35% from river basin showed high nitrate which was exceeded the permissible limits. The results indicated a large variation in nitrate content from 0.28-334.40 mg/l,  river basin area range was 0.28-277.00 mg/l whereas in hilly terrain area 1.72-344.40 mg/l. The identified possible nitrate sources in river basin area were excessive use of fertilizer in agricultural purpose, on site sanitation, dumping of animal waste and leakage of septic tanks in domestic area while in hilly terrain area including these, geogenic activities and shallow depth of soil zone compared to river basin, poor structure of wells also potential factor of high nitrate. And nitrate content in dug wells located in agriculture land were found more compared to dug wells located in domestic area and also found more in shallow depths dug wells.

Author Biography

PARMESHWAR LAL MEENA, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302004
Department of Chemistry, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302004

References

1. APHA 2012, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (22nd Ed.), Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
2. BIS 2003, Specification for drinking water, Revised 2003, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
3. BIS 2012, India Standard, Drinking water specification (Second Revision) Bureau of Indian Standard, IS. 10500.
4. Brindha K., Elango L. & Nair R. N. V. 2013, Soil and groundwater quality with reference to nitrate in a semiarid agricultural region, Saudi Society for Geosciences.
5. Canter L. W. 1997, Nitrate in groundwater, Lewish Publishers, New York, pp.263.
6. Chettri M. & Smith G. D. 1995, Nitrate pollution in groundwater in selected District of Nepal. Hydrogeol. J., 3, 71-76.
7. Dutt M. C., Lim H. Y. & Chew R. K. H. 1987, Nitrate Consumption and the Incidence of Gastric Cancer in Singapore, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 25(7), 515-520.
8. Gideon T., Pannie E. & Sumaya I. 2009, Nitrate in ground water, WRC Report No. TT 410/09, 1-15.
9. Gupta S.K., Gupta R. C., Chhabra S. K., Eskiocak S., Gupta A. B. & Gupta, R. 2008, Health issues related to N pollution in water and air. Current Science, 94(11), 1469–1477.
10. Lake I. R., Lovett A. A., Hiscock K. M., Betson M., Foley A., Sünnenberg G., Evers S. & Fletcher S. 2003, Evaluating factors influencing groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution: developing the potential of GIS. J. Environ. Manage. 68, 315-328.
11. Liu A., Ming J. & Ankumah R. O. 2005, Nitrate contamination in private wells in rural Alabama, United States. Sci. Total Environ. 346, 112-120.
12. Majumdar D. 2003, The Blue Baby Syndrome: Nitrate Poisoning in Humans, Resonance, 8(10), 20-30.
13. Moore E. & Matalon E. 2011, The Human Costs of Nitrate- Contaminated Drinking Water in the San Joaquin Valley, Report of Pacific Institute.
14. Piskin R. 1973, Evaluation of nitrate content of groundwater Hall Couty Nebraska. J. Groundwater, 11(6), 4-13.
15. Rao N. S. 2006, Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ. Geol. 51, 631-645.
16. Saxena U. & Saxena S. 2014, Ground water quality evaluation with special reference to Fluoride and Nitrate contamination in Bassi Tehsil of district Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, Int. J. of Environ. Sci., 5(1), 144-163.
17. Sinha-Roy S., Malhotra G. & Mohanty M. 1998, Geology of Rajasthan, Geological Society of India, 1-278.
18. Somasundaram M. V., Ravindran G. & Tellam J. H. 1993, Ground-water pollution of the Madras Urban aquifer. India Ground Water, 31, 4–11
19. WHO 1984, Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.
20. WHO 1993, Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.
21. WHO 2007, Nitrate and nitrite in drinking-water Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.
22. Widory D., Kloppmann W., Chery L., Bonnin J., Rochdi H. & Guinamant J. L. 2004, Nitrate in groundwater: an isotopic multi-tracer approach. J. Contam. Hydrol., 72, 165-188.
Published
2016-10-14
Section
Articles